There are approximately 300,000 pediatric epilepsy cases in the US, with 45,000 newly diagnosed cases each year. Understanding the etiology (i.e. underlying cause) of epilepsy is essential for properly treating patients. Until recently, the etiology of epilepsy was regarded as unknown in about 75% of patients. However, because of new developments in sequencing technologies, genetic studies are yielding new discoveries every year that are helping patients unlock the underlying cause of their disease, allowing them and their care givers to make more informed decisions about their treatment.